Maskless printing, dispense, and jet technologies make possible a functional integration right on a 3D surface. Even the smallest of structures can be applied to different substrate surfaces and geometries. Line thicknesses of as little as 10 μm are achievable, at interspace of 20 μm.
Screen and pad printing technologies, using pastes, also enable the functionalization of 3D surfaces such as rotation-symmetric components.
Composites even allow for integrating functions directly into the component. Here, basic materials such as fabrics or fibers, are functionalized with a suitable printing technology prior to integrating them into composite parts further down the production process.